Now showing items 108-127 of 130

    • Role of overlapping generations in maintaining genetic variation in a fluctuating environment 

      Ellner, Stephen; Hairston, Nelson G., Jr. (University of Chicago, 1994-03)
      Population genetics theory suggests that temporally fluctuating selection on pheno- types can act to maintain genetic variance only under very restrictive conditions. However, this conclusion is based on models with discrete ...
    • Salicylate-mediated interactions between pathogens and herbivores 

      Thaler, Jennifer S.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Halitschke, Rayko (Ecological Society of America, 2010-01-01)
      Plants employ hormone?mediated signaling pathways to defend against pathogens and insects. We tested predictions about the relative effect of jasmonate and salicylate pathways and how they mediate interactions between ...
    • Shifts in plant–microbe interactions over community succession and their effects on plant resistance to herbivores 

      Howard, Mia; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Kessler, Andre (New Phytologist, 2020)
      Soil microorganisms can influence the development of complex plant phenotypes, including resistance to herbivores. This microbiome-mediated plasticity may be particularly important for plant species that persist in ...
    • Species-specific Daphnia phenotypes: a history of industrial pollution and pelagic ecosystem response 

      Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Kearns, Colleen M.; Perry Demma, Linda; Effler, Steven W. (Ecological Society of America, 2005-07)
      Phenotypic differences among species, even closely related species, may translate into distinct effects on ecosystem dynamics. In lakes, the generalist grazer genus Daphnia often has marked effects on the abundance of ...
    • Spillover of a biological control agent (Chrysolina quadrigemina) onto native St. Johnswort (Hypericum punctatum) 

      Tingle, Jessica L.; Cook-Patton, Susan C.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (PeerJ, 2016-03-31)
      Biological control agents may have unintended effects on native biota, particularly species that are closely related to the target invader. Here, we explored how Chrysolina quadrigemina, a beetle introduced to control the ...
    • Staggered chromosomal hybrid zones in the house mouse: relevance to reticulate evolution and speciation 

      Gündüz, ?.; Pollock, C.L.; Giménez, M.D.; Förster, D.W.; White, T.A.; Sans-Fuentes, M.A.; Hauffe, H.C.; Ventura, J.; López-Fuster, M.J.; Searle, J.B. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Insitute (MDPI), 2010-09)
      In the house mouse there are numerous chromosomal races distinguished by different combinations of metacentric chromosomes. These may come into contact with each other and with the ancestral all-acrocentric race, and form ...
    • Sulfur and carbon isotopes as tracers of salt-marsh organic matter flow 

      Peterson, B.J.; Howarth, R. W.; Garritt, R.H. (Wiley, 1986-08-01)
      Stable isotopes of sulfur and carbon were used to trace the dominant flows of organic matter from producers to macroconsumers in Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh on Cape Cod. Spartina alterniflora and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria ...
    • Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi’s iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events 

      Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Rudzinski, Anna; Nugraha, Abang Mansyursyah Surya; Evin, Allowen; Burton, James; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Vega, Rodrigo; Irving-Pease, Evan K.; Haile, James; Allen, Richard; Leus, Kristin; Shephard, Jill; Hillyer, Mia; Gillemot, Sarah; van den Hurk, Jeroen; Ogle, Sharron; Atofanei, Cristina; Thomas, Mark G.; Johansson, Friederike; Mustari, Abdul Haris; Williams, John; Mohamad, Kusdiantoro; Damayanti, Chandramaya Siska; Wiryadi, Ita Djuwita; Obbles, Dagmar; Mona, Stephano; Day, Hally; Yasin, Muhammad; Meker, Stefan; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Evans, Ben J.; von Rintelen, Thomas; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Searle, J. B.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Macdonald, Alastair A.; Shaw, Darren J.; Hall, Robert; Galbusera, Peter; Larson, Greger (The Royal Society, 2018-04-11)
      The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back to 40 Ma. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi's fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, ...
    • Temporal dynamics of a simple community with intraguild predation: an experimental test 

      Hiltunen, T.; Jones, L. E.; Ellner, S. P.; Hairston, Nelson G., Jr. (Ecological Society of America, 2013-04)
      We explore how adding complexity to a typical predator-prey interaction affects temporal dynamics. Intraguild predation webs contain competition, predation, and omnivory in a system of three species where theory and empirical ...
    • Tests of the coupled expression of latex and cardenolide plant defense in common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Patrick, Eamonn T.; Hastings, Amy P. (Ecological Society of America, 2014-10-21)
      The coexpression of plant resistance traits suggests the hypothesis that they may have complementary functions in defense against herbivory. To address the extent to which defensive traits are necessarily coupled in plants ...
    • The Benefits of Induced Defenses Against Herbivores 

      Karban, Richard; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Mangel, Marc (Ecological Society of America, 1997-07-01)
      Previous explanations for the evolution of induced resistance of plants to herbivory emphasized arguments based on saving costs when allocations to defense were not needed; these models met with limited empirical support. ...
    • The Changing pace of Insular Life: 5000 Years of Microevolution in the Orkney Vole (microtus Arvalis Orcadensis) 

      Cucchi, T.; Barnett, R.; Martínková, N.; Renaud, S.; Renvoisé, E.; Evin, A.; Sheridan, A.; Mainland, I.; Wickham?Jones, C.; Tougard, C.; Quéré, J.P.; Pascal, M.; Pascal, M.; Heckel, G.; O'Higgins, P.; Searle, J.B.; Dobney, K.M. (Society for the Study of Evolution, 2014-06-23)
      Island evolution may be expected to involve fast initial morphological divergence followed by stasis. We tested this model using the dental phenotype of modern and ancient common voles (Microtus arvalis), introduced onto ...
    • The hypothetical Old-Northern chromosome race of Sorex araneus found in the Ural Mts 

      Polyakov, A.V.; Borodin, P.M.; Luká?ová, L.; Searle, J.B.; Zima, J. (Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board, 1997)
      Chromosomes of two populations of the common shrew, Sorex araneus L. (Mammalia, Insectivora, Soricidae), from the northern Ural Mts. were investigated. In both sites, homozygous, all-metacentric autosomal complements were ...
    • The importance of plant genotype and contemporary evolution for terrestrial ecosystem processes 

      Fitzpatrick, C. R.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Basiliko, N.; Hastings, Amy P.; Isaac, M. E.; Preston, M.; Johnson, Mark T. (Ecological Society of America, 2015-10-01)
      Plant genetic variation and evolutionary dynamics are predicted to impact ecosystem processes but these effects are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that plant genotype and contemporary evolution influence ...
    • The interaction of photoperiod and temperature in diapause timing: a copepod example 

      Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Kearns, C. M. (University of Chicago Press, 1995-08)
      In many organisms, photoperiod and temperature are thought to be the most significant token cues for seasonally timed life history events, including diapause in arthropods. A common pattern in many species of terrestrial ...
    • The raison d'etre of chemical ecology 

      Raguso, Robert A.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Douglas, Angela E.; Jander, Georg; Kessler, Andre; Poveda, Katja; Thaler, Jennifer S. (Ecological Society of America, 2015-03-01)
      Chemical ecology is a mechanistic approach to understanding the causes and consequences of species interactions, distribution, abundance, and diversity. The promise of chemical ecology stems from its potential to provide ...
    • The role of technology and policy in mitigating regional nitrogen pollution 

      Gu, Baojing; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Jie; Peng, Chanhui; Liu, Dong; Min, Yong; Luo, Weidong; Howarth, R. W.; Ge, Y. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2011-03-01)
      Human activity greatly influences nitrogen (N) pollution in urbanized and adjacent areas. We comprehensively studied the N cycling in an urban-rural complex system, the Greater Hangzhou Area (GHA) in southeastern China. ...
    • The timing of copepod diapause as an evolutionarily stable strategy 

      Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Munns, Wayne R. (University of Chicago, 1984-06)
      Diaptomus sanguineus, a small freshwater copepod, avoids periods of intense fish predation by producing diapausing eggs. We developed a computer simulation of the copepod's life history and used it to compete populations ...
    • Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development 

      Caulton, D.R.; Shepson, P. B.; Santoro, R.L.; Sparks, J.P.; Howarth, R. W.; Ingraffea, A.; Camaliza, M.O.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Davis, K.J.; Stirm, B.H.; Montzka, S.A.; Miller, B. (National Academy of Sciences, 2014-04-29)
      The identification and quantification of methane emissions from natural gas production has become increasingly important owing to the increase in the natural gas component of the energy sector. An instrumented aircraft ...
    • Toward a Predictive Framework for Convergent Evolution: Integrating Natural History, Genetic Mechanisms, and Consequences for the Diversity of Life 

      Agrawal, Anurag A. (University of Chicago Press, 2017-08)
      A charm of biology as a scientific discipline is the diversity of life. Although this diversity can make laws of biology challenging to discover, several repeated patterns and general principles govern evolutionary ...