Training and Pruning Apple Trees
Training and pruning principles are discussed with the physiology of tree growth, northeast climate conditions, and growers' objectives in mind. Pruning and training of young, non-fruit bearing apple trees is discussed separately from pruning of fruit bearing trees. Mechanical pruning, renovating old trees, supports, scaffold limbs, central-leader development, and economics of pruning are covered.
Cornell Cooperative Extension
nonbearing, high-density plantings, rootstock