Supplemental tables for Balancing dairy cattle diets for rumen nitrogen and methionine or all essentail amino acids relative to metabolizable energy
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Balancing dairy cattle diets for rumen nitrogen and methionine or all essentail amino acids relative to metabolizable energy
LaPierre, P. Andrew; Van Amburgh, Michael; Higgs, Ryan; Chase, Larry; Schwab, Charles; Sloan, Brian; Lucini, Daniel
Improving the ability of diet formulation models to more accurately predict AA supply while appropriately describing requirements for lactating dairy cattle pro- vides an opportunity to improve animal productivity, reduce feed costs, and reduce N intake. The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of a new version of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) to formulate diets for rumen N, Met, and all essential AA (EAA). Sixty-four high-producing dairy cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 following diets in a 14-wk longitudinal study: (1) limited metabo- lizable protein (MP), Met, and rumen N (Base), (2) adequate Met but limited MP and rumen N (Base + M), (3) adequate Met and rumen N, but limited MP (Base + MU), and (4) adequate MP, rumen N, and bal- anced for all EAA (Positive). All diets were balanced to exceed requirements for ME relative to maintenance and production, assuming a nonpregnant, 650-kg ani- mal producing 40 kg of milk at 3.05% true protein and 4.0% fat. Dietary MP was 97.2, 97.5, 102.3, and 114.1 g/kg of dry matter intake for the Base, Base + M, Base + MU, and Positive diets, respectively. Differences were observed for dry matter intake and milk yield (24.1 to 24.7 and 39.4 to 41.1 kg/d, among treatments). Energy corrected milk, fat, and true protein yield were greater (2.9, 0.13, and 0.08 kg/d, respectively) in cows fed the Positive compared with the Base diet. Using the updat- ed CNCPS, cattle fed the Base, Base + M, and Base + MU diets were predicted to have a negative MP balance (−231, −310, and −142 g/d, respectively), whereas cattle fed the Positive diet consumed 33 g of MP/d excess to ME supply. Bacterial growth was predicted to be depressed by 16 and 17% relative to adequate N supply for the Base and Base + M diets, respectively, which corresponded with the measured lower apparent total-tract NDF degradation. The study demonstrates that improvements in lactation performances can be achieved when rumen N and Met are properly supplied and further improved when EAA supply are balanced relative to requirements. Formulation using the revised CNCPS provided predictions for these diets, which were sensitive to changes in rumen N, Met, all EAA, and by extension MP supply.
Amino acids; Nitrogen; Energy; Lactation; Modeling