Congestion pricing (CP) is seen as a viable solution to urban traffic congestion, but its impact on public health also deserves to be evaluated before implementation. In this study, we assessed several congestion pricing schemes proposed for the San Francisco downtown area from a health perspective. We compare the eight proposed CP schemes with baseline scenario (no-action) to observe the health effects from physical activity (PA), fine inhalable particles matter (PM) exposure, and road traffic injuries (RTI) three pathways using the Integrated Transport and Health Impact Model (ITHIM). The results of the study show that these CP schemes all have a beneficial effect on the public health of San Francisco. Finally, we recommend further research on TNC travel fees in these CP schemes and explore the potential for health improvements on physical activity by encouraging people to use active modes of transport.
U.S. Department of Transportation 69A3551747119
Public health; congestion pricing; urban traffic congestion; ITHIM