Calories and nutrients are basic physiological human needs. Food security is therefore essential for creating healthy, happy communities. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of food insecurity of any major global region; the majority of the population experiences some degree of food insecurity, with approximately 30% of people experiencing severe food insecurity, and an additional 36% experiencing moderate food insecurity. Food security had been improving in Africa until 2014, but recent years have seen reduced agricultural yields due to effects of climate change, an increase in conflict in the region, and market disruption from the COVID-19 global pandemic, leading to more people becoming food insecure. Income is the strongest predictor of household food security, but other factors such as agricultural production, market integration, education, and gender also have an impact. Food security will be a challenge in Africa over the next century, due to climate change and a quickly-growing population.