Iron (Fe) Bioavailability from Mung Beans: Effects of Household Processing and Form of Fe Fortificants
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Mung beans (Vigna radiata) constitute a popular crop in Southeast Asian countries but contain phytates, and polyphenols that impair Fe absorption. One of the key causes of Fe deficiency is poor bioavailability of dietary Fe. Food fortification is a good strategy for combating Fe deficiency. This study compares the in vitro Fe bioavailability (bioaccessibility and cell uptake) from mung beans prepared by household cooking procedures, boiling and soak-boiling, and fortified with selected Fe fortificants. To estimate Fe bioavailability, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was used. Mung beans can constitute a good source of Fe since their concentrations were 60.1?1.5 ?g/g beans (dry basis). Although boiling did not affect Fe concentration in mung beans, the soak-boiling procedure decreased the Fe content by 16%. However, soak-boiling increased the Fe bioaccessibility up to 21% relative to boiled (9.1%) and raw beans (not detectable). Both cooking procedures decreased the content of phenolics; however, soak-boiling increased the soluble phytate in the digests. When comparing the effect of different fortificants, Fe bioavailability from beans fortified with SprinklesTM was higher than either FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate. In conclusion, 1) cooking enhanced Fe bioavailability in non-fortified beans, and 2) fortification with SprinklesTM was the most effective strategy.
mung beans; iron; fortification; bioavailability; Caco-2 cell
dissertation or thesis